The Dollar ($) in Excel formula indicates absolute reference. What does that mean?

It means that the value that immediately succeeds the dollar sign will not change.

In Excel a single cell can be used in 4 different ways:

Let’s take cell B4 as an example:

you can have:

## B4

No $ sign this one is relative. It will change if a column/formula that references this column is copied to a different cell.

## $B4

If a cell references this column, the "B" will never change bit the "4" will change. Only the "B" is Frozen

## B$4

If a cell references this column, The "B" will change but the 4 is frozen. So if you use this in a formula, the 4 is absolute.

## $B$4

If a cell references this column, it will NOT change if that cell is copied to a different cell. The whole cell is frozen.

Useful Links:

https://www.ablebits.com/office-addins-blog/2015/11/25/relative-absolute-reference-excel/